Pathophysiology

Biomechanics of Concussion

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: David F. Meaney, PhDa,*, Douglas H. Smith, MDb.

Source: Clin Sports Med 30 (2011) 19–31

The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the past work directed at understanding the biomechanical etiology of concussions. The broad scale of knowledge on this topic is presented, ranging from the measurable mechanical parameters associated with concussion to the underlying mechanisms responsible for tissue damage and the molecular substrates that could form the basis of the immediate, transient impairment observed during a typical concussion episode. Possible future directions are reviewed briefly.

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The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussions among high school athletes, 2005–2010

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Lianne Castile,1 Christy L Collins,1 Natalie M McIlvain,1 R Dawn Comstock1,2,3

Source: Br J Sports Med (2011)

Objectives To compare new versus recurrent concussions with respect to constellation of symptoms, symptom severity, symptom resolution; evaluate potential subset differences with respect to gender and sport; and to compare mechanisms and activities associated with new versus recurrent concussions..

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The Molecular Pathophysiology of Concussive Brain Injury

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Garni Barkhoudarian, MDa,*, David A. Hovda, PhDb,c,d, Christopher C. Giza, MDe,f,g

Source: Clin Sports Med 30 (2011) 33–48

Concussion (or mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI) is a biomechanically induced neurological injury, resulting in an alteration of mental status, such as confusion or amnesia, which may or may not involve a loss of consciousness. Concussion affects about 1.6 million to 3.8 million athletes yearly, most commonly in contact sports such as American football and boxing.

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Intentional versus unintentional contact as a mechanism of injury in youth ice hockey

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Scott R Darling, Douglas E Schaubel, John G Baker, et al.

Source: Br J Sports Med published online May 19, 2010

Youth ice hockey injury rates and mechanisms have been described by various classification systems. Intentional versus unintentional contact was used to classify mechanisms of injuries. All injuries (n=247) in one youth hockey programme over a 5-year period were recorded and included in the analysis.

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Traumatic Brain Injury — Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Steven T. DeKosky, M.D., Milos D. Ikonomovic, M.D., and Sam Gandy, M.D., Ph.D.

In late July, the National Football League introduced a new poster to be hung in league locker rooms, warning players of possible long-term health effects of concussions. Public awareness of the pathological consequences of traumatic brain injury has been elevated not only by the recognition of the potential clinical significance of repetitive head injuries in such high-contact sports as American football and boxing, but also by the prevalence of vehicular crashes and efforts to improve passenger safety features, and by modern warfare, especially blast injuries..

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Concussons: A Head-On Approach

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Chris Adam MD, CCFP and Neil Craton BSc., MHK, MD, DipSportMed, CIME.

Source: The Canadian Journal of Diagnosis, February 2002

Though not under intense spotlight of the national media, most primary care physicians must nonetheless routinely evaluate patients who have sustained a concussion, and formulate an appropriate management plan.

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The Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion

Written by on May 21, 2013 in Pathophysiology with 0 Comments

Authors: Christopher C. Giza; David A. Hovda

Source: Journal of Athletic Training 2001;36(3):228–235. (Copyright by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, Inc)

To review the underlying pathophysiologic processes of concussive brain injury and relate these neurometabolic changes to clinical sports-related issues such as injury to the developing brain, overuse injury, and repeated concussion.

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