Research Articles

Medical retirement from sport after concussions. A practical guide for a difficult discussion

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Cecilia Davis-Hayes, BA*, David R. Baker, MD*, Thomas S. Bottiglieri, DO, William N. Levine, MD, Natasha Desai, MD, James D. Gossett, ATC, and James M. Noble, MD, MS, CPH

In patients with a considerable history of sports-related concussion, the decision of when to discontinue participation in sports due to medical concerns including neurologic disorders has potentially lifealtering consequences, especially for young athletes, and merits a comprehensive evaluation involving nuanced discussion. Few resources exist to aid the sports medicine provider.

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Football and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: How Much Evidence Actually Exists?

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Moon K, Theodore N, Football and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: How Much Evidence Actually Exists?, World Neurosurgery (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.03.073.

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy — confusion and controversies

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Douglas H. Smith, Victoria E. Johnson, John Q. Trojanowski and William Stewart

The term chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has recently entered public consciousness via media reports and even a Hollywood movie. However, in contrast to general impressions, the incidence of CTE is unknown, the clinical diagnostic criteria have not been agreed upon and the current neuropathological characterization of CTE is acknowledged as preliminary. Additionally , few studies have compared the pathologies of CTE with those of other neurodegenerative disorders or of age- matched controls. Consequently , disagreement continues about the neuropathological aspects that make CTE unique. Furthermore, CTE is widely considered to be a consequence of exposure to repeated head blows, but evidence suggests that a single moderate or severe traumatic brain injury can also induce progressive neuropathological changes. These unresolved aspects of CTE underlie disparate claims about its clinical and pathological features, leading to confusion among the public and health- care professionals alike.

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ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

This handout provides a snapshot of what researchers currently know about chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE. Research on CTE is growing. More studies can help answer many questions about this disease.

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Estimated Age of First Exposure to American Football and Neurocognitive Performance Amongst NCAA Malev Student‑Athletes: A Cohort Study

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Jaclyn B. Caccese1 · Ryan M. DeWolf2 · Thomas W. Kaminski1,3 · Steven P. Broglio4 · Thomas W. McAllister5 ·Michael McCrea6 · Thomas A. Buckley1,3 · CARE Consortium Investigators

Background Repetitive head impacts in young athletes are potentially detrimental to later life (e.g., age 50 + years) neurological function; however, it is unknown what the short-term effects (e.g., age 20 years) are in collegiate student-athletes.

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The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Ann C. McKee,1,2,3,4,5 Thor D. Stein,1,5 Christopher J. Nowinski,2,4,6 Robert A. Stern,2,3,4,7 5 Daniel H. Daneshvar,2,4 Victor E. Alvarez,2,4 Hyo-Soon Lee,3,4 Garth Hall,8 Sydney M. Wojtowicz,1,2 Christine M. Baugh,2,4 David O. Riley,2,4 Caroline A. Kubilus,3,4 Kerry A. Cormier,1 Matthew A. Jacobs,2,4 Brett R. Martin,9 Carmela R. Abraham,3,10 Tsuneya Ikezu,3,4,11 Robert Ross Reichard,12 Benjamin L. Wolozin,3,4,11 Andrew E. Budson,1,3,4 Lee E. Goldstein,3,4,12,13,14,15 Neil W. Kowall1,3,4,5,* and Robert C. Cantu2,6,7,16,*

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging in age from 17 to 98 years (mean 59.5 years), including 64 athletes, 21 military veterans (86% of whom were also athletes) and one individual who engaged in self-injurious head banging behaviour. Eighteen age- and gender-matched individuals without a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury served as control subjects. In chronic traumatic encephalopathy, the spectrum of hyperphosphory- lated tau pathology ranged in severity from focal perivascular epicentres of neurofibrillary tangles in the frontal neocortex to severe tauopathy affecting widespread brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe, thereby allowing a progressive staging of pathology from stages I–IV.

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Association of Football Subconcussive Head Impacts With Ocular Near Point of Convergence

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Chronic TBI, Research Articles

Keisuke Kawata, MS; Leah H. Rubin, PhD, MPH; Jong Hyun Lee; Thomas Sim; Masahiro Takahagi, MEd; Victor Szwanki, MS; Al Bellamy, MS; Kurosh Darvish, PhD; Soroush Assari, BS, MS; Jeffrey D. Henderer, MD; Ryan Tierney, PhD; Dianne Langford, PhD

An increased understanding of the relationship between subconcussive head impacts and near point of convergence (NPC) ocular-motor function may be useful in delineating traumatic brain injury.

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Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Research Articles, Soccer

Astrid Junge,1,2,3 Jiri Dvořák1,2,4

FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998.

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Risk management: FIFA’s approach for protecting the health of football players

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Research Articles, Soccer

Colin W Fuller, Astrid Junge, Jiri Dvorak

Sport and exercise have long-term health benefi ts, but there is also a risk that participants will sustain injuries and/or ill health from these activities. For this reason, international sports governing bodies have a responsibility to identify the risks that exist within their sport and to provide guidance to participants and other stakeholders on how these risks can be controlled within acceptable levels.

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A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football

Written by on May 13, 2019 in Research Articles, Soccer

C W Fuller, A Junge, J Dvorak

To identify those risk factors that have the greatest impact on the incidence of head and neck injuries in international football.

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